Taking Summer Organic Chemistry Course Online: What to Expect and How to Prepare

Summer organic chemistry classes are generally tougher than the regular fall or spring ones. A typical semester is 12 to 16 weeks long. However, you’ll be covering the same amount of material in 8-10 weeks in the summer. Additionally, some summer classes aim to jam the entire 2-semester sequence over the summer making it extremely …

Taking Summer Organic Chemistry Course Online: What to Expect and How to Prepare Read More »

Reactions of Alkynes

Alkynes have a very similar reactivity to alkenes. They undergo the electrophilic additions like halogenation and hydrohalogenation. They can also be reduced with the aid of a heterogeneous catalyst or oxidized via several techniques. Alkynes do, however, have a number of unique reactions that you’re not going to see with other functional groups. Catalytic Hydrogenation …

Reactions of Alkynes Read More »

Reactions of Alkenes

Reactions of alkenes is a huge topics. Alkenes, as a functional group, is a very versatile one. You can reduce it, you can oxidize it, you can cleave it, and you can do a large number of various addition reactions modifying an alkene to other functional groups. So, let’s go over the must-know reactions of …

Reactions of Alkenes Read More »

Enantiomers and Diastereomers

enantiomers and diastereomers

Enantiomers and diastereomers are the only two stereochemical relationships that you can have between any two molecules. The stereoisomers are any two molecules that fulfill the following two requirements: Both molecules must have the same molecular formula, and Both molecules must have the same atom connectivity. So, what’s the difference then? The molecules are stereoisomers …

Enantiomers and Diastereomers Read More »

Pinacol Rearrangement

Pinacol rearrangement is a specific elimination reaction that vicinal diols go through in acidic conditions. Unlike a typical E1 reaction that gives you an alkene, the pinacol rearrangement gives you an aldehyde or a ketone instead. Here’s the general scheme for the reaction: As you can see, the pinacol rearrangement also causes the carbon backbone …

Pinacol Rearrangement Read More »

How to Convert a Trans Alkene into a Cis Alkene?

Suppose you need to accomplish the following transformation: This is not the most trivial of questions as there are no single-step reactions that can realistically accomplish this transformation. Of course, there are some isomerization techniques out there, but they all favor the more thermodynamically stable molecule. And since the more thermodynamically stable double bond is …

How to Convert a Trans Alkene into a Cis Alkene? Read More »

How to Prepare to the Second Semester of Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is an extremely interconnected science. As you have already seen in the first semester of your organic chemistry sequence, one topic connects to another in such a way, that mastering consequent topics is very hard without mastering previous ones. Before we go further, let’s look at the typical first semester organic chemistry topics. …

How to Prepare to the Second Semester of Organic Chemistry Read More »