Hybridization

You’ve probably heard about the hybridization in your general chemistry course and in the organic chemistry multiple times. So, what’s the fuss all about? We all know from general chemistry that the s-orbital is spherical, and p-orbitals are dumbbell-looking orbitals oriented along the x, y, and z axes of the Cartesian system. We also know …

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VSEPR Theory

VSEPR stands for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory. VSEPR is an important part of the valence bond theory and is a logical next step in the use of the Lewis structures in organic chemistry. In this post, I’m only going to focus on the uncharged molecules. However, the formal charge doesn’t really change anything …

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Converting Between Fischer, Haworth, and Chair Forms of Carbohydrates

In this post I want to go over the three most typical forms of the carbohydrates: Fischer projection for the open-chain molecules, Haworth projections focusing on cyclic pyranoses, and your regular chair conformations. While other structures are possible (and you’re definitely going to encounter them in your course), I’m specifically going to be focusing on …

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