Hybridization

You’ve probably heard about the hybridization in your general chemistry course and in the organic chemistry multiple times. So, what’s the fuss all about? We all know from general chemistry that the s-orbital is spherical, and p-orbitals are dumbbell-looking orbitals oriented along the x, y, and z axes of the Cartesian system. We also know …

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VSEPR Theory

VSEPR stands for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory. VSEPR is an important part of the valence bond theory and is a logical next step in the use of the Lewis structures in organic chemistry. In this post, I’m only going to focus on the uncharged molecules. However, the formal charge doesn’t really change anything …

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Reactions of Carboxylic Acids

reactions of carboxylic acids

Carboxylic acid functional group is very common in organic synthesis and in biochemical processes. Thus, knowing the reactions of carboxylic acids is a must for anyone who wants to master organic chemistry. Acid-Base Properties of Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are, well, acids 😀 so they tend to dissociate giving a proton/hydronium ion and a corresponding …

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Reactions of Alcohols

Alcohol function is an extremely versatile functional group in organic chemistry. Reactions of alcohols involve oxidations, substitutions, and eliminations giving you a significant advantage in synthesis and functional group modifications. Reactions of alcohols is a typical topic in a sophomore organic chemistry and is covered in either first or second semester depending on the instructor’s …

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