Synthesis Practice Question 1: Robinson Annulation

In this post I wanna talk about one interesting synthesis question a student brought to me. So, without a further ado, here’s the question: Propose the reasonable synthetic sequence to accomplish the following transformation— While this synthesis may look intimidating, let’s break the whole process into small steps. This will help us see how we …

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Formal Charges

formal charges in organic chemistry

Formal charges in organic chemistry is, perhaps, one of the most fundamental bookkeeping devices which is often misunderstood or neglected by students. Why Formal Charges are Important in Organic Chemistry? Knowing formal charges can help us understand the reactivity patterns in reactions, find reactive centers, and make sense out of electron flow in the mechanisms. …

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Reactions of Alkynes

Alkynes have a very similar reactivity to alkenes. They undergo the electrophilic additions like halogenation and hydrohalogenation. They can also be reduced with the aid of a heterogeneous catalyst or oxidized via several techniques. Alkynes do, however, have a number of unique reactions that you’re not going to see with other functional groups. Catalytic Hydrogenation …

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Reactions of Alkenes

Reactions of alkenes is a huge topics. Alkenes, as a functional group, is a very versatile one. You can reduce it, you can oxidize it, you can cleave it, and you can do a large number of various addition reactions modifying an alkene to other functional groups. So, let’s go over the must-know reactions of …

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Enantiomers and Diastereomers

enantiomers and diastereomers

Enantiomers and diastereomers are the only two stereochemical relationships that you can have between any two molecules. The stereoisomers are any two molecules that fulfill the following two requirements: Both molecules must have the same molecular formula, and Both molecules must have the same atom connectivity. So, what’s the difference then? The molecules are stereoisomers …

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Taking Summer Organic Chemistry Course Online: What to Expect and How to Prepare

Summer organic chemistry classes are generally tougher than the regular fall or spring ones. A typical semester is 12 to 16 weeks long. However, you’ll be covering the same amount of material in 8-10 weeks in the summer. Additionally, some summer classes aim to jam the entire 2-semester sequence over the summer making it extremely …

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Pinacol Rearrangement

Pinacol rearrangement is a specific elimination reaction that vicinal diols go through in acidic conditions. Unlike a typical E1 reaction that gives you an alkene, the pinacol rearrangement gives you an aldehyde or a ketone instead. Here’s the general scheme for the reaction: As you can see, the pinacol rearrangement also causes the carbon backbone …

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